Fuck you for perpetuating the use of derogatory language towards trans women.
Fuck you for saying the only difference between a drag queen and a trans woman is “$25,000 and a good surgeon”, but also contractually excluding then from being contestants on your show.
Identifying the differences between hieratic handwriting
(You’ll have to bear with me guys, this admin is attempting something fairly radical in terms of layout and complexity. I apologise if this is formatted wrong.)
Much like the painters of pots in Ancient Greece, we can tell the difference between the different hands of scribes in documents written in the Hieratic script. All 3 documents above were written during the New Kingdom and are written by different people (scribes and not). Two of the documents (top) are part of a group known as the Late Ramesside Letters (BM EA 10411 & BM EA 10417) and the third document is one text from a group of papyri known as the Tomb Robbery papyri (BM EA 10052).
The aim of this post is to demonstrate the way in which academics can tell different hands apart by looking at the way different scribes write the hieratic symbols that represent hieroglyphic signs.
Hieratic is the cursive, quick hand, form of the hieroglyphic script. What most of you will be most used to seeing is the monumental inscription form of hieroglyphs. While these are common on buildings and stele, the actual hand written form of hieroglyphs can take two forms. Cursive script and Hieratic script. Cursive script is the hieroglyphic script written as clear as the monumental inscriptions but using reed and ink. Hieratic is a handwritten script that has short form signs instead of the full hieroglyphic script. This is the most common script when working with administrative documents and letters between family. The 3 texts above fall into these categories and are all written in Late Egyptian (the form of the hieroglyphic script that developed during the Amarna period and continued to be used until the advent of Demotic and Coptic).
In an attempt at consistency and fairness, I shall use 3 different hieroglyphic words to demonstrate the handwriting, taking examples of the words from each. The 3 words I will be using are imn (the name of the god Amun), pA (a particle meaning “the” or “this”), and the auxiliary particle (a sign set that denotes the beginning of a sentence in Egyptian grammar) iw.
For information’s sake BM EA 10052 is written by Scribe Thutmose, BM EA 10411 is written by Butehamun, and BM EA 10417 is written by Amenhotep.
The monumental inscription of Amun looks like this:
Butehamun (BM EA 10411) writes Amun like this:
Thutmose (BM EA 10052) writes Amun like this:
Amenhotep (BM EA 10417) writes Amun like this:
As you can see, the 3 men write Amun very differently to one another. Butehamun makes a clear distinction of all three signs when writing and the signs are written on a slant. Thutmose writes Amun as three signs ligatured together. This perhaps has something to do with the speed at which he was writing the transcripts of the tomb robbery trials so uses the most shorthand form of the sign. Amenhotep’s “Amun” is written neatly and distinctively. The “mn” aspect of the sign is very similar to Butehamun’s but you’ll notice that Amenhotep takes the time to make the sign neat and writes all aspects of the sign, whereas Butehamun’s is less defined.
pA (“the” or “this”)
The monumental inscription of pA looks like this:
Butehamun (BM EA 10411) writes pA like this:
Thutmose (BM EA 10052) writes pA like this:
Amenhotep (BM EA 10417) writes pA like this:
Two forms of the pA bird are shown here, the long form and the short form. Butehamun writes the short hand version of pA as he is writing a letter to his son Tjaroy and therefore does not need to be formal. His writing of pA is consistant throughout all the letters to his family. Those that are official use his ligatured form of the long version of pA. Thutmose also uses the short hand version of pA but his lines are straighter than those of Butehamun. It is typical for him to ligature the two signs together when writing. Amenhotep uses the long form of pA. You can see that he makes the distinction of the wings of the first bird on top of the body whereas the others don’t.
iw (auxiliary particle)
The monumental inscription of iw looks like this:
Butehamun (BM EA 10411) writes iw like this:
Thutmose (BM EA 10052) writes iw like this:
Amenhotep (BM EA 10417) writes iw like this:
This is a more difficult sign to show the difference in. Butehamun ligatures the two lines representing the reed leaf so that they intersect noticeably and his “w” sign is straight but curved at the bottom. Thutmose’s writing of the sign does not ligature the reed but the “w” sign is straight but slanted (in the instance above it is ligatured to the next word). Amenhotep’s iw is written out fully and neatly. The “w” sign looks more like the quail chick (a “w” varient of the swirl sign above) and the reed leaf shows no sign of ligatures.
I hope this has been somewhat enlightening on the subject as it is quite difficult to tackle. As academics we have to look for the subtle nuances and differences found in the writing of the signs by different people to identify different writers of different documents. I hope I have been able to explain this well enough and I do hope you’ve enjoyed it.
All images from the British Museum (linked in their names at the top)
Coke Bust | Another Fucking Problem
Work, death, bills, debt, time, life, stress. Fuck, when will it end? I am just a simple man. I do everything I can to keep the peace, make ends meet, make it work, make you see. Stability, health, future, fights. Done it all clean, obeyed all their rules. I try my best but I still seem to lose. I’m in over my head, and I can’t seem to solve them.
Just another fucking problem.